Introductory Blog – Luke Collins

I am delighted to have joined the CASS team as Senior Research Associate and will be working across the new programme of studies in Corpus Approaches to Health(care) Communication. I have already begun working on a fascinating strand exploring the Narratives of Voice-hearers and I will be working closely with Professor Elena Semino in applying corpus methods to see what effects a therapeutic intervention has on the experiences of those who hear distressing voices – and how they articulate these experiences – over time. More broadly, we will be examining representations of mental health and illness in the media, looking to address issues of stigmatisation and support public awareness and understanding.

Working towards the application of corpus linguistics and the findings of corpus analysis to health services is a great motivation to me and I am thrilled to have the opportunity to build on my previous work in this area. I have published work on the experiences of people undergoing a therapeutic intervention and demonstrated how corpus approaches can help to capture some of the complexities of those experiences. I have also implemented corpus analyses to investigate discussions of complex global issues in the news media (specifically, climate change and AMR), thinking about public understanding and how media reporting can help readers to comprehend their role in such issues. I have recently been working on my edition of the Routledge ‘Corpus Linguistics for..’ series, focusing on applications of corpus tools for analysing different types of online communication and hope to announce its release early next year. Throughout my work, I have endeavoured to raise awareness of corpus methods outside of the discipline and create opportunities to work with collaborators from various backgrounds. I am glad to find that in my role with CASS, this can continue!

Outside of my work, I have a reputation for hand-made greeting cards and I am an avid record collector. Since I have moved to Lancaster I have been exploring the local area and discovering what a picturesque part of the country this is. I don’t even mind the rain!

Statistics in (Higher) Education: A few thoughts at the beginning of the new academic year

As every year around this time, university campuses are buzzing with students who are starting their studies or returning to the campus after the summer break – this incredible transformation pours life into buildings – empty spaces become lecture theatres, seminar rooms and labs. Students have the opportunity to learn many new things about the subject they chose to study and also engage with the academic environment more generally.  Among the educational and development opportunities students have at the university one transferable skill stands out: statistical literacy.

Numbers are an essential part of our everyday life. We count the coins in our pocket, the minutes before the next bus arrives or the sunny days in a rainy year. Numbers and quantitative information are also very important for students and educators. Statistical literacy – the ability to produce and interpret quantitative information – belongs to the basic set of academic skills that, despite its importance, may not always receive the attention it deserves.

Many students (and academics) are afraid of statistics – think about what your first reaction is to the equation in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: The equation of standard deviation (mathematical form)

 

This is because statistics is often misconstrued as the art of solving extremely complicated equations or a mysterious magic with numbers. Statistics, however, is first and foremost about understanding and making sense of numbers and quantitative information. For this, we need to learn the basic principles of collecting, organising and interpreting quantitative information. Critical thinking is thus much more important for statistics than the number crunching ability. After all, computers are very good at processing numbers and solving equations and we can happily leave this task to them. For example, many even complex statistical tasks can be achieved by using tools such as the Lancaster Stats Tool online, where the researcher can merely copy-paste their data (in an appropriate format) and press one button to receive the answer.

Humans, on the other hand, outperform computers in the interpretation skills. This is because we have the knowledge of the context in which numbers appear and we can therefore evaluate the relative importance of different quantitative results. We as teachers, linguists, sociologists, scientists etc. can provide the underlying meaning to numbers and equations and relate them to our experience and the knowledge of the field. For example, the equation in Figure 1 can be simplified as follows:

Figure 2: The equation of standard deviation (conceptual)

When we relate this to what we know about the world, we can see that the question we are asking in Figure 2 is how much variation there is in our data, a question about variability, difference in tendencies and preferences and overall diversity. This is something that we can relate to in our everyday experience: Will I ever find a twenty-pound note in my pocket? Is the wait for the bus longer in the evening? Is the number of sunny days different every year? When talking about statistics in education, I consider the following point crucial: as with any subject matter, it is important to connect statistical thinking and statistical literacy with our daily experience.

To read more about statistics for corpus linguistics, see Brezina, V. (2018). Statistics in Corpus Linguistics: A Practical Guide. Cambridge University Press.

Introductory Blog – Gavin Brookes

This is the second time I have been a part of CASS, which means that this is the second time I’ve written one of these introductory blog pieces. I first worked in CASS in 2016, on an eight-month project with Paul Baker where we looked at  the feedback that patients gave about the NHS in England. This was a really fun project to work on – I enjoyed being a part of CASS and working with Paul and made some great friends in the Centre with whom I’m still in contact to this day. Since leaving CASS in October 2016, I completed my PhD in Applied Linguistics in the School of English at the University of Nottingham, which examined the ways that people with diabetes and eating disorders construct their illnesses and identities in online support groups. Following my PhD, I stayed in the School of English at Nottingham, working as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the School’s Professional Communication research and consultancy unit.

As you might have guessed from the topic of my doctoral project and my previous activity with CASS, my main research interests are in the areas of corpus linguistics and health communication. I am therefore very excited to return to the Centre now, with its new focus on the application of corpora to the study of health communication. I’m currently working on a new project within the Centre, Representations of Obesity in the News, which explores the ways that obesity and people affected by obesity are represented in the media, focussing in particular on news articles and readers’ responses. I’m very excited to be working on this important project. Obesity is a growing and seemingly ever-topical public health concern, not just in the UK but globally. However, the media’s treatment of the issue can often be stigmatising, making it quite deserving of scrutiny! Yet, our aim in this project isn’t just to take the media to task, but to eventually work with media outlets to advise them on how to cover obesity in a way that is more balanced and informative and, crucially, less stigmatising for people who are affected by it. In this project, we’re also working with obesity charities and campaign groups, which provides a great opportunity to make sure that the focus of our research is not just fit for academic journals but is relevant to people affected by this issue and so can be applied in the ‘real world’, as it were.

So, to finish on more of a personal note, the things I said about myself the last time I wrote one of these blog posts  are still true ; I still like walking, I still travel lots, I still read fantasy and science fiction, I still do pub quizzes, my football team are still rubbish and I don’t think I’ve changed that much since the photo used in that piece was taken… Most of all, though, it still excites me to be a part of CASS and I am absolutely delighted to be back.

 

ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship: The psychological validity of non-adjacent collocations

Having recently completed my PhD in CASS, I am really excited to announce that I have been awarded an ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship for the upcoming academic year.

My research focuses on finding neurophysiological evidence for the existence of collocations, i.e. sequences of two or more words where the words are statistically highly likely to occur together. There are a lot of different types of collocation, and the different types vary along the dimensions of fixedness and compositionality. Idioms, for example, are highly fixed in the sense that one word cannot typically be substituted for another word. They are also non-compositional, which means that the meaning of the expression cannot be derived from knowing the meaning of the component words.

Previous studies investigating the psychological validity of collocation have tended to focus on idioms and other highly fixed expressions. However, this massively limits the generalizability of the findings. In my research, I therefore use a much more fluid conceptualization of collocation, where sequences of words can be considered to be collocational even if they are not fixed, and even if the meaning of the expression is highly transparent. For example, the word pair clinical trials is a collocation, despite lacking the properties of fixedness and non-compositionality, because the word trials is highly likely to follow the word clinical. In this way, I focus on the transition probabilities between words; the transition probability of clinical trials (as measured in a corpus) is much higher than the transition probability of clinical devices, even though the latter word pair is completely acceptable in English, both in terms of meaning and grammar.

In my research, I extract collocational word pairs such as clinical trials from the written BNC1994. I then construct matched non-collocational word pairs such as clinical devices, embed the two sets of word pairs into corpus-derived sentences, and then ask participants to read these sentences on a computer screen while electrodes attached to their scalp detect some of their brain activity. This method of recording the electrical activity of the brain using scalp electrodes is known as electroencephalography, or EEG. More specifically, I use the event-related potential (ERP) technique of analysing brainwave data, where the brain activity is measured in response to a particular stimulus (in this case, collocational and non-collocational word pairs).

My PhD consisted of four ERP experiments. In the first two experiments, I investigated whether or not collocations and non-collocations are processed differently (at the neural level) by native speakers of English. In the third experiment, I did the same but with non-native speakers of English. Then, having found that there are indeed neurophysiological differences in the way that collocations and non-collocations are processed by both native and non-native speakers, I then conducted a fourth experiment to investigate which measures of collocation strength most closely correlate with the brain response. The results of this experiment have really important implications for the field of corpus linguistics, as I found that the two most widely-used measures of collocation strength (namely log-likelihood and mutual information) are actually the two that seem to have the least psychological validity.

The ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship is unique in that, although it allows for the completion of additional research, the main focus is actually on disseminating the results of the PhD. Thus, during my year as an ESRC Postdoctoral Fellow, I intend to publish the results of my PhD research in high-impact journals in the fields of corpus linguistics and cognitive neuroscience. I will also present my findings at conferences in both of these fields, and I will attend training workshops in other neuroscientific methods.

The additional research that I intend to do during the term of the Fellowship will build upon my PhD work by using the ERP technique to investigate whether or not the neurophysiological difference in the processing of collocations vs. non-collocations is still apparent when the (non-)collocations contain intervening words. For instance, I want to find out whether or not the collocation take seriously is still recognized as such by the brain when there is one intervening word (e.g. take something seriously) or two intervening words (e.g. take the matter seriously), and so on.

Investigating the processing of these non-adjacent collocations is important for the development of linguistic theory. While my PhD thesis focused on word pairs rather than longer sequences of words in order to reduce the number of factors that might influence how the word sequences were processed, making it feasible to conduct controlled experiments, this is actually a very narrow way of conceptualizing the notion of collocation; in practice, words are considered to form collocations when they occur in one another’s vicinity even if there are several intervening words, and even if the words do not always occur in the same order. I will therefore use the results of this additional research to inform the design of research questions and methods for future work engaging with yet more varied types of collocational pattern. This will have important implications for our understanding of how language works in the mind.

I would like to conclude by expressing my gratitude to the ESRC for providing funding for this Fellowship. I am very grateful to be given this opportunity to disseminate the results of my PhD thesis, and I am very excited to carry out further research on the psychological validity of collocation.

Compiling a trilingual corpus to examine the political and social representation(s) of ‘people’ and ‘democracy’

As a visiting researcher at CASS (coming from the University of Athens, where I am Associate Professor of Corpus Linguistics and Translation), since mid-October 2017 and until the end of August 2018, my research aim is to investigate critical aspects of populist discourses in Europe and their variation, especially during and after the 2008 financial (and then social and political) crisis, and to reveal patterns of similarity and difference (and, tentatively, of interconnectedness and intertextuality) across a wide spectrum of political parties, think tanks and organisations. This being essentially a Corpus-Assisted Discourse Study (CADS), a first way into examining the data is to identify and statistically analyse collocational patterns and networks that are built around key lexemes (e.g. ‘people’, ‘popular’, ‘democracy’, in this scenario), before moving on to critically correlating such quantitative findings with the social and political backdrop(s) and crucial milestones.

 

The first task of this complex corpus-driven effort, which is now complete, has been to compile a large-scale trilingual (EN, FR, EL) ‘focus’ corpus. This has been a tedious technical process: before the data can be examined in a consistent manner, several problems needed to be addressed and solutions had to be implemented, as outlined below.

 

  1. As a key primary aim was to gather as much data as possible from the websites of political parties, political organisations, think tanks and official party newspapers, from the UK, France and Greece, it was clear from the outset that it would not be possible to manually cull the corpus data, given the sheer number of sources and of texts. On the other hand, automatic corpus compilation tools (e.g. BootCaT and WebBootCaT in SketchEngine) could not handle the extent and the diversification of the corpora. To address this problem, texts were culled using web crawling techniques (‘wget -r’ in Linux bash) and the HTTrack app, with a lot tweaking and the necessary customisation of download parameters, to account for the (sometimes, very tricky) batch download restrictions of some websites.
  2. Clean-up html boilerplate (i.e., corpus text-irrelevant sections of code, advertising material, etc. that are included in html pages). This was accomplished using Justext (the app used by M. Davies to compile the NOW corpus), with a few tweaks, so to be able to handle some ‘malformed’ data, especially from Greek sources.

As I plan to specifically analyse the variation of key descriptors and qualifiers (‘key’ keywords and their c-collocates) as a first way into the “charting” of the discourses at hand, the (article or text) publication date is a critical part of the corpus metadata, one that needs to be retained for further processing. However, most if not all of this information is practically lost in the web crawling and boilerplating stages. Therefore, the html clean-up process was preceded by the identification and extraction of the articles’ publication dates, using a php script that was developed with the help of Dr. Matt Timperley (CASS, Lancaster) and Dr. Pantelis Mitropoulos (University of Athens). This script scans all files in a dataset, accounts for all possible date formats in all three languages, and then automatically creates a csv (tab-delimited) table that contains the extracted date(s), matched with the respective filenames. Its accuracy is estimated at ca. 95%, and can be improved further, by checking the output and rescanning the original data with a few code tweaks.

  1. Streamline the data, by removing irrelevant stretches of text (e.g. “Share this article on Facebook”) that were possibly left behind during the boilerplating process – this step is ensured using Linux commands (e.g. find, grep, sed, awk) and regular expressions and greatly improves the accuracy of the following step.
  2. Remove duplicate files: since onion (ONe Instance ONly: the script used e.g. in SketchEngine) only looks for pattern repetitions within a single file and within somewhat short maximum paragraph intervals, I used FSLint – an application that takes account of the files’ MD5 signature and identifies duplicates. This is extremely accurate and practically eliminates all files that have a one hundred percent text repetition, across various sections of the websites, regardless of the file name or creation date (actually, this was found to be the case mostly with political party websites, not newspapers). (NB: A similar process is available also in Mike Scott’s WordSmith Tools v7).
  3. Order files by publication year for each subcorpus and then calculate the corresponding metadata (files, tokens, types and average token count, by year) for each dataset and filter out the “focus corpus”, i.e. by looking for relevant files containing only node lemmas (i.e., lemmas related to the core question of this research: people*|popular|democr*|human* and their FR and EL equivalents, using grep and regular expressions – note that an open-source, java-based GUI app that combines these search options for large datasets is FAR).
  4. Finally, prepare the data for uploading on LU’s CQPWeb, by appending the text publication year info, as extracted from stage 2 to the corresponding raw text file – this was done using yet another php script, kindly developed by Matt Timperley.

 

In a nutshell, texts were culled from a total of 68 sources (24 Greek, 26 British, and 18 French). This dataset is divided into three major corpora, as follows:

  1. Cumulative corpus (CC, all data): 746,798 files/465,180,684 tokens.
  2. Non-journalistic research corpus (RC): 419,493 files/307,231,559 tokens.
  3. Focus corpus (FC): 205,038 files/235,235,353 tokens.

Is Academic Writing Becoming More Colloquial?

Have you noticed that academic writing in books and journals seems less formal than it used to? Preliminary data from the Written BNC2014 shows that you may be right!

Some early data from the academic journals and academic books sections of the new corpus has been analysed to find out whether academic writing has become more colloquial since the 1990s. Colloquialisation is “a tendency for features of the conversational spoken language to infiltrate and spread in the written language” (Leech, 2002: 72). The colloquialisation of language can make messages more easily understood by the general public because, whilst not everybody is familiar with the specifics of academic language, everyone is familiar with spoken language. In order to investigate the colloquialisation of academic writing, the frequencies of several linguistic features which have been associated with colloquialisation were compared in academic writing in the BNC1994 and the BNC2014.

Results show that, of the eleven features studied, five features have shown large changes in frequency between the BNC1994 and the BNC2014, pointing to the colloquialisation of academic writing. The use of first and second person pronouns, verb contractions, and negative contractions have previously been found to be strongly associated with spoken language. These features have all increased in academic language between 1994 and 2014. Passive constructions and relative pronouns have previously been found to be strongly associated with written language, and are not often used in spoken language. This analysis shows that both of these features have decreased in frequency in academic language in the BNC2014.

Figure 1: Frequency increases indicating the colloquialisation of academic language.

Figure 2: Frequency decreases indicating the colloquialisation of academic language.

These frequency changes were also compared for each genre of academic writing separately. The genres studied were: humanities & arts, social science, politics, law & education, medicine, natural science, and technology & engineering. An interesting difference between some of these genres emerged. It seems that the ‘hard’ sciences (medicine, natural science, and technology & engineering) have shown much larger changes in some of the linguistic features studied than the other genres have. For example, figure 3 shows the difference in the percentage increase of verb contractions for each genre, and clearly shows a difference between the ‘hard’ sciences and the social sciences and humanities subjects.


Figure 3: % increases in the frequency of the use of verb contractions between 1994 and 2014 for each genre of academic writing.

This may lead you to think that medicine, natural science, and technology & engineering writing has become more colloquial than the other genres, but this is in fact not the case. Looking more closely at the data shows us that these ‘hard’ science genres were actually much less colloquial than the other genres in the 1990s, and that the large change seen here is actually a symptom of all genres becoming more similar in their use of these features. In other words, some genres have not become more colloquial than others, they have simply had to change more in order for all of the genres to become more alike.

So it seems from this analysis that, in some respects at least, academic language has certainly become more colloquial since the 1990s. The following is a typical example of academic writing in the 1990s, taken from a sample of a natural sciences book in the BNC1994. It shows avoidance of using first or second person pronouns and contractions (which have increased in use in the BNC2014), and shows use of a passive construction (the use of which has decreased in the BNC2014).

Experimentally one cannot set up just this configuration because of the difficulty in imposing constant concentration boundary conditions (Section 14.3). In general, the most readily practicable experiments are ones in which an initial density distribution is set up and there is then some evolution of the configuration during the course of the experiment.

It is much more common nowadays to see examples such as the following, taken from an academic natural sciences book in the BNC2014. This example contains active sentence constructions, first person pronouns, verb contractions, negative contractions, and a question.

No doubt people might object in further ways, but in the end nearly all these replies boil down to the first one I discussed above. I’d like to return to it and ponder a somewhat more aggressive version, one that might reveal the stakes of this discussion even more clearly. Very well, someone might say. Not reproducing may make sense for most people, but my partner and I are well – educated, well – off, and capable of protecting our children from whatever happens down the road. Why shouldn’t we have children if we want to?

It will certainly be interesting to see if this trend of colloquialisation can be seen in other genres of writing in the BNC2014!


Would you like to contribute to the Written BNC2014?

We are looking for native speakers of British English to submit their student essays, emails, and Facebook and Whatsapp messages for inclusion in the corpus! To find out more, and to get involved click here. All contributors will be fully credited in the corpus documentation.

British National Corpus 2014: A sociolinguistic book is out

Have you ever wondered what real spoken English looks like? Have you ever asked the question of whether people from different backgrounds (based on gender, age, social class etc.) use language differently? Have you ever  thought it would be interesting to investigate how much English has changed over the last twenty years? All these questions can be answered by looking at language corpora such as the Spoken BNC 2014 and analysing them from a sociolinguistic persective. Corpus Approaches to Contemporary British Speech:  Sociolinguistic Studies of the Spoken BNC2014 is a book which offers a series of studies that provide a unique insight into a number of topics ranging from Discourse, Pragmatics and Interaction to Morphology and Syntax.

This is, however, only the first step. We are hoping that there will be many more studies to come based on this wonderful dataset. If you want to start exploring the Spoken BNC 2014 corpus, it is just three mouse clicks away:

Get access to the BNC2014 Spoken

  1. Register for free and log on to CQPweb.
  2. Sign-up for access to the BNC2014 Spoken.
  3. Select ‘BNC2014’in the main CQPweb menu.

Also, right now there is a great opportunity to take part in the written BNC 2014 project, a written counterpart to the Spoken BNC2014.  If you’d like to contribute to the written BNC2014, please check out the project’s website for more information.

Learn about the BNC2014, scan a book sample and contribute to the corpus…

On Saturday 12 May 2018, CASS hosted a small training event at Lancaster University for a group of participants, who came from different universities in the UK.  We talked about the BNC2014 project and discussed both the theoretical underpinnings as well as the practicalities of corpus design and compilation. Slides from the event are available as pdf here.

The participants then tried in practice what is involved in the compilation of a large general corpus such as the BNC2014. They selected and scanned samples of books from current British fiction, poetry and a range of non-fiction books (history, popular science, hobbies etc.). Once processed, these samples will become a part of the written BNC2014.

Here are some pictures from the event:

Carmen Dayrell and Vaclav Brezina before the event

Elena Semino welcoming participants

In the computer lab: Abi Hawtin helping participants


A box full of books

If you are interested in contributing to the written BNC2014, go to the project website  to find out about different ways in which you can participate in this exciting project.

The event was supported by ESRC grant no. EP/P001559/1.

Media delusions: the (mis)representation of people with schizophrenia in 9 U.K. national newspapers between 2000 and 2015

In 2006, The Independent published an article advertising to its readers some of the islands off the coast of New Zealand as ideal holiday destinations. Amongst descriptions of various idyllic landscapes, cultural eccentricities and tourist attractions, the author warns readers of some of the local fauna:

     “Wildlife-wise, there are not just hammerhead sharks in these parts, he told me, but school sharks       and mako sharks – the paranoid schizophrenics of the shark world (The Independent, 2                       September 2006).

What is meant by the paranoid schizophrenics of the shark world’? Surely not that a species of shark is affected by a chronic mental disorder, typically characterised by delusions and auditory hallucinations?

I think most readers would agree that the author does not mean this literally. In fact, there is currently no evidence that sharks, or other animals besides humans, experience symptoms of psychosis. Instead, given some of the shared characteristics of sharks and ‘paranoid schizophrenics’ in our background knowledge, we can infer that by paranoid schizophrenics of the shark world, the journalist means ‘highly dangerous sharks’.  In other words, our understanding of what is meant rests on the assumption that paranoid schizophrenics are aggressive and violent members of the human race.

So where have we learnt to believe that people with schizophrenia are more violent than other people? Probably not from personal experience or credible evidence. Statistics repeatedly show that people with schizophrenia are not significantly more likely to commit violent crimes than the general population (Kalucy et al, 2011; Fazl and Grann, 2006). Other studies report that people with schizophrenia are instead more likely to be the targets of violence (Wehring and Carpenter, 2011).

One likely explanation is the media, which has been shown to frequently represent people with schizophrenia as aggressive, unpredictable killers who are both ‘mad’ and ‘bad’ (e.g. Cross, 2014, Clement, 2008, Coverdale, 2002). These misrepresentations are particularly alarming given the influence of the media on public attitudes. Since members of the public are unlikely to have first-hand experiences with people with schizophrenia, they obtain almost all their understanding of, and attitudes towards, people with schizophrenia from the increasingly ubiquitous media (Angermeyer et al, 2005). People with the diagnosis themselves are given little choice but to internalise these malign stereotypes, which have been found to deter some individuals from seeking medical help and sadly increasing the risk of suicide (Harrison and Gill, 2010; Wilkinson, 1994).

For my doctoral thesis, I have spent the last two years examining the ways in which schizophrenia is portrayed in the U.K. national press between 2000 and 2015. I pay attention, not only to how people with schizophrenia are misrepresented as violent, but also to other, less well-documented representations. For instance, my project has also led me to consider cases where the press paint a picture of people with schizophrenia as having special and unexplained creative powers, serving to make them separate and different from ‘ordinary folk’, and perhaps resulting in expectations that may be difficult to meet.

In order to consider the most frequent portrayals and how they might have changed over time, I am examining all articles published by 9 U.K. national newspapers –five tabloids (The Express, The Mail, The Mirror, The Star, The Sun) and four broadsheets (The Guardian, The Independent, The Telegraph, The Times) – published between 2000 and 2015 that refer to a diagnosis of schizophrenia in some way. This comprises 16,466 articles and 15,134,066 words which I then analyse for frequent patterns using a combination of statistical computer tools and manual linguistic analysis.

As a linguist, I pay close attention to how positive or negative portrayals are realised through subtle choices in language. These can reveal the origins of various misconceptions. For instance, 14 of the top 25 ‘doing’ words that occur unusually frequently in the vicinity of the word schizophrenic in my data refer to violent behaviours.  In other words, ‘schizophrenics’ frequently attack, behead, punch, murder, rape, stab and slash others, or at least pose a risk or threaten them.

     A MACHETE-wielding schizophrenic who slashed two guards in a rampage through MI5’s HQ           was locked up in a mental health unit indefinitely yesterday. (The Sun, 22 June 2005).

     A paranoid schizophrenic beheaded his flatmate in a frenzied attack after suffering from                     delusions that he was being persecuted, a court has heard. (The Mirror, 2 December 2013).

The frequency with which schizophrenic occurs in the vicinity of violent action words help explain why someone might have chosen to characterise the school and mako sharks as the paranoid schizophrenics of the shark world, and how readers were able to make sense of this analogy.

Overall, it is clear that the media have a responsibility to offer more accurate and balanced representations of schizophrenia. In utilising a characteristically language-oriented approach, the goal of this research is to offer media institutions practical ways to improve their reporting of schizophrenia by identifying potentially problematic choices in language and suggesting more balanced and accurate alternatives.

If you have any suggestions or observations, or for any reason would like to get in touch, please contact me via my email: j.balfour(Replace this parenthesis with the @ sign)lancaster.ac.uk

More on drought: The ENDOWS project

We are thrilled to announce that our latest bid was successful – ENDOWS: ENgaging diverse stakeholders and publics with outputs from the UK DrOught and Water Scarcity programme.

The ENDOWS project will capitalise on the outcomes from four existing projects within NERC’s UK Drought and Water Scarcity programme (Historic Droughts, DRY, MaRIUS and IMPETUS) to maximise impact. ENDOWS will exploit the synergies between these projects, promote active interaction among disciplines, and develop close collaboration with a diverse range of stakeholders (policy makers, water companies, NGOs and community leaders). The project therefore opens up the possibility of genuinely enhancing and innovating the UK planning and management of future drought events.

Funded by NERC, this is a two-year project which brings together a multi-disciplinary team of 37 researchers from 12 UK universities or research centres and Climate Outreach, one of Europe’s leading voices on public engagement:

  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH)
  • University of West England
  • University of Oxford
  • Cranfield University
  • The University of Reading
  • University of Bristol
  • British Geological Survey (BGS)
  • Sheffield University
  • Harper Adams University
  • University of Exeter
  • Lancaster University
  • Loughborough University
  • University of Warwick

Carmen Dayrell is the Co-Investigator at Lancaster University. She has been working with Tony McEnery and Helen Baker as part of the CASS team within the Historic Droughts project. CASS is examining how British newspapers have debated drought and water scarcity events in UK, covering 200 years of discourse: 1850 to 2014. The analysis uses an innovative methodological approach which combines Critical Discourse Analysis with methods from Corpus Linguistics and GIS (Geographic Information Systems), enabling the researchers to examine the link between textual patterns and geographic references and hence explore geographically bounded discourses.

To illustrate the interesting results that this type of analysis can yield, let’s have a look at the places appearing around the word “drought” in newspaper texts published between 2010 and 2012. These were years when England and Wales were hit hard by drought. The bigger the dot in the maps, the higher the number of mentions.

 

Figure 1: 2010-2012 drought in Britain (tabloid)

 

 

Figure 2: 2010-2012 drought in Britain (broadsheet)

 

A closer reading of texts unveils interesting patterns:

  • The press does not always specify the specific locations impacted by the drought. Britain and England were by far the places most frequently mentioned.
  • When mentioning specific locations, these were usually in England.

Large areas of Britain face drought conditions, the Environment Agency said. Parts of the Midlands and Yorkshire are expected to be declared high risk in the agency’s drought prospects report.

The Telegraph 11/03/2012

  • Rather than impacted by the drought, Scotland was portrayed as the solution for the problem since it is rich in water resources.

SCOTLAND yesterday offered to provide water to drought-hit Southern England. Infrastructure Secretary Alex Neil said it was “only right” to offer some of Scotland’s “plentiful supply of water “. 

The Express, 10/03/2012

  • The newspapers also report on actions taken to address the problem of drought. Applications for drought orders and permits and the introduction of hosepipe bans were the most frequently mentioned.

The remaining area in drought is South and West of a line from Lincolnshire to Sussex, taking in Oxfordshire, where hosepipe bans imposed by seven water companies remain in place.

The Independent, 19/05/2012

  • There were also mentions of the impact of the drought. These mainly related to: (i) wildlife and plants/gardens being affected and (ii) water levels of rivers and reservoirs going low.

SCIENTISTS fear rare eel species could be completely wiped out because of drought in the South of England.

The Daily Record, 17/07/2011

River levels are as low as in 1976 after another very dry week across England and Wales, the Environment Agency said. In its latest drought briefing yesterday, the Government agency said all areas had seen less than 1mm of rain.

The Herald, 31/03/2012

By examining 200 years of newspaper discourse, the analysis can trace repeated patterns and changes across time. This in turn can inform ways of thinking about how the media representation of drought has influenced the way in which the British public perceives and responds to drought events. Thus, the newspaper analysis will contribute to fostering more informed dialogues between policy makers, water companies, and community leaders and the general public.